HORT202
GENERAL HORTICULTURE LABORATORY
Lab 2: Recognition of Plant Structures
INTRODUCTION

ROOTS

LEAF MORPHOLOGY LEAF TYPES  MODIFIED LEAVES
 

STEM MORPHOLOGY 
 

MODIFIED STEMS
 

TYPICAL FLOWERS
 

FRUIT PARTS

CLASSIFICATION OF FRUIT

 
CLASSIFICATION OF FRUIT
Simple Fruit
derived from a single flower with a single ovary (pistil).
dry dehiscent fruit--pericarp splits open at maturity.
legume 
or 
pod
contains one locule that splits along two sutures. (bean, pea, peanut, mimosa)
Peanut
legume peanut
follicle contains one locule that splits along one or more suture. (larkspur, sweet gum, 
magnolia)
Sweet Gum and Magnoliafollicle Sweetgum and magnolia
capsule contains three or more locules that split along three or more sutures. (okra, golden rain tree, tallow tree)
Okra
capsule-okra
dry indehiscent fruit--pericarp dries, but does not split open at maturity.
samara one or two seeded with pericarp 
flattened into wings. 
(maple, ash)
Ash
samara-ash
caryopsis 
or 
grain
one seeded fruit with seed fused to the pericarp. (wheat, corn, grain)
Corn
caryopsis-corn
achene one seeded fruit with seed free from pericarp.(sunflower)
Sunflower
achene-sunflower
nut similiar to an achene, but one seeded by abortion and partially (acorn) or entirely 
enclosed by a husk. (pecan, walnut)
Pecan and Acornnut pecan and acorn
fleshy fruit--pericarp does not dry at maturity.
berry entire pericarp is fleshy.
(grape, tomato)
Tomato
berry-tomato
pepo a type of berry, with the exocarp as a hard rind.
(melon, cucumbers, squash)
Squash
pepo-squash
hesperidium a type of berry, with the exocarp and mesocarp as a hard rind and the endocarp composed of juice vesicles.
(citrus-orange, lemon, lime)
Lemon
hesperidium lemon

drupe 
or 
stone
a single-seeded fruit with a skin-like exocarp (fuzzy or smooth) fleshy mesocarp and a hard stony endocarp.
(peach, cherry, plum, coconut)
Peach
drupe-peach

pome
a paper-like pericarp containing a thickened, fleshy receptacle or hypanthium.
(apple, pear, pomengranate)
Apple
pome-apple
dryfruit-fleshyfruit

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The General Horticulture Laboratory 2 Homepage, was created by Trisha Blessington Haley and was updated by Michelle Meche.  Any comments or suggestions should be e-mailed to D.W. Reed at e-mail: dwreed@tamu.edu.  If you use any of the instructional material, please give credit to the source. Copyright  D.W. Reed, TAMU.